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Omo Valley

Omo Valley Research 

We conduct long-term fieldwork in the Omo Valley of Ethiopia. The Omo Valley is a culturally diverse region in southwest Ethiopia with over 12 languages spoken, and a variety of subsistence styles, including market-integrated town dwellers, small-scale horticulturalists, nomadic pastoralists, and riverine fishers and farmers. 


We use multiple methods to study human behavior in ecologically valid contexts, including long-term ethnographic field studies, behavioral ecology, experimental economics, and GPS technology. If you’re interested in learning more about fieldwork in this region or possibly joining our team, please get in touch by email. 

At the bottom of this page, you can find many academic resources and ethnographic materials about the groups in this region.

OVRP Team Summer 2019.jpg

Research Team Summer 2019

South Omo Research Center

South Omo Research Center


The Nyangatom are Nilotic semi-nomadic pastoralists inhabiting the border region between South Sudan and Ethiopia along the northern edge of the Ilemi Triangle. They number approximately 30,000 with populations in both South Sudan and Ethiopia. Ethnographic documentation of the Nyangatom is sparse with the majority of it by French anthropologist Serge Tornay. The Nyangatom are members of the Karimojong or Ateker cluster and closely related to the neighboring Toposa and Turkana who speak mutually intelligible languages. They also share borders with the Suri, Mursi, Kwegu, Kara, Hamar, and Dassanetch.


Although they identify primarily as pastoralists, agricultural products such as sorghum and maize constitute a significant portion of the diet for many Nyangatom and may be supplemented through hunting. Although many Nyangatom live in mobile villages, a many live in semi-permanent villages on the east banks of the Omo river and the north bank of the seasonal Kibish river.  The new (2006) market and administrative town of Kangaten is increasingly attractive as a place of settlement for many Nyangatom who move away from traditional lifestyles.


Nyangatom men negotiate bridewealth payments


Nyangatom women build a hut

Omo Valley

Nomadic encampments, Nyangatom


The Dassanetch (Daasanach) are an ethnic group living in the Dassanetch District of the South Omo Zone and number approximately 50,000. Many Dassanetch also live in northern Kenya along Lake Turkana and the Omo River.  Inland Dassanetch primarily raise livestock while Dassanetch along the Omo fish and hunt aquatic game such as crocodile. The Dassanetch language is on the East Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. Most male Dassanetch are multilingual, with Amharic commonly spoken on the Ethiopian side of the border, and English and Swahili understood by most Dassanetch living in Kenya.


Dassanetch Village


Omo Valley Resources

Below are numerous academic publications on several of the groups in this region, many of which are difficult to find. If you need help locating a publication and your library can’t access it, please feel free to email me as I have pdfs of many other materials. 


Note to researchers: Anthropologists largely continue to publish in monographs and edited volumes that are hard to access, and that in many cases are nearly impossible for members of the host communities to obtain. It’s morally incumbent on us to ensure the results or our research are available for others. Please consider this when choosing what format to publish in, or consider scanning a copy of your work and posting online


Traditional life and prospects for socio-economic development in the Hamar Administrative District of southern Gamu Gofa.1976. Ivo A. Strecker
The Temptations of War and the Struggle for Peace among the Hamar of Southern Ethiopia. 1999. Ivo Strecker

Resistance and Bravery: On Social Meanings of Guns in South-West Ethiopia. 2009. Ken Masuda

Situating the Banna: An Ethnographic Description of Ethnic Identification. 2009. Ken Masuda

From cattle herding to sedentary agriculture: The role of Hamer women in the transition. 2013. Samuel Tefera

Clashing values: The 2015 conflict in Hamar district of South Omo Zone, southern Ethiopia. 2020. Yohannes Yitbarek

Combatting infanticide in Bashada and Hamar: The complexities behind a ‘harmful traditional practice’ in southern Ethiopia. 2020 .Susanne Epple

Culture, Contact, and Identity: The Multiethnic Composition of the Bashada of Southern Ethiopia. 2010. Susanne Epple

Harmful practice or ritualised guidance? Reflections on physical punishment as part of socialization among the Bashada of Southern Ethiopia. 2012. Susanne Epple

The Role of Wild and Semi-wild Edible Plants in Household Food Sovereignty in Hamer and Konso Communities, South Ethiopia. 2013. Addis et al.

The traditional practice of Mingi among the Hamer, Bena and Kara Tribes in Ethiopia: A theological perspective on a bio-ethical challenge. 2020. BW Gorebo

Sustaining Life amid Growing Uncertainties: Hamer Womens' Engagement in Land Management. 2020. Tefera & Kaneko

Omo Rangelands Report. 2016.Samuel Tefera et al.

Friendship networks in southwestern Ethiopia. 2014. Tadesse and Guichard

Ilemi Triangle 

A border too far: The Ilemi Triangle yesterday and today. 2019. Philip Winter

Agenda-setting report for the Borderlands Working Group. 2004.Eulenberger et el.

Durham Middle East Papers Sir William Luce Publication Series. 2019. Philip Winter

Riverbank Cultivation in the Lower Omo Valley: The Intensive Farming System of the Kara, Southwestern Ethiopia. 1996. Hiroshi Matsuda
The Kara-Nyangatom War of 2006-07: Dynamics of Escalating Violence in the Tribal Zone. 2008. Felix Girke

Bondfriendship in the Cultural Neighborhood Dyadic Ties and Their Public Appreciation in South Omo. 2010. Felix Girke

Ethiopian images of self and other. 2014. Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg

Plato on the Omo: Reflections on Decision-Making among the Kara of southern Ethiopia. 2011. Felix Girke

Annexation & Assimilation: Koegu & their Neighbours. 1994. Hiroshi Matsuda
The Economy of Affection Unites the Region: Bond-partnership in the Lower Omo Valley, Southwestern Ethiopia. 2008. Hiroshi Matsuda
A problem of domination at the periphery: the Kwegu and the Mursi. 1986. David Turton
Quantitative ethnobotany of medicinal plants used by Kara and Kwego semi-pastoralist people in lower Omo River Valley. 2010. Tilahun Teklehaymanot & Mirutse Giday

Ethiopian images of self and other. 2014. Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg

Fission-fusion dynamics: new research frameworks. 2008. Aureli et al.

Kwegu: Hunters of the River. 2018. Lucie Buffavand

The Kwegu. 1982. Jean Lydall


The Social Organisation of the Mursit a pastoral tribe of the Lower Omo Valley, South West Ethiopia. 1973. D.A. Turton
War, Peace, and Mursi Identity. 1979. David Turton
Mursi Response to Drought: Some Lessons for Relief and Rehabilitation. 1985. David Turton
A problem of domination at the periphery: the Kwgu and the Mursi. 1986. David Turton
Warfare, Vulnerability and Survival: A Case from Southwestern Ethiopia. 1989. David Turton
Movement, Warfare and Ethnicity in the Lower Omo Valley. 1991. David Turton

"We must teach them to be peaceful": Mursi Views on being Human and being Mursi. 1992. David Turton
Mursi Political Identity & Warfare: The Survival of an Idea. 1994. David Turton
Warfare in the Lower Omo Valley, Southwestern Ethiopia: Reconciling Materialist and Political Explanations. 1999. David Turton
The Politician, the Priest and the Anthropologist: living beyond conflict in Southwestern Ethiopia. 2002. David Turton

Cultural Capital as Access to Livelihood Opportunities for Local People at Destinations, and Effect of Changes in Cultural Practice: A Case Study in South Omo Zone, Ethiopia. 2019. Azeb Girmai


Nyangatom Livelihood and the Omo Riverine Forest. 2017. C.J. Carr
Evil Days: Thirty Years of War and Famine in Ethiopia. 1991. Human Rights Watch
The Kara-Nyangatom War of 2006-2007: Dynamics of Escalating Violence in the Tribal Zone. 2008. Felix Girke
The Social Construction of Emotions: Gratification and Gratitude Among the Turkana and Nyangatom of East Africa. 2004. Pierre Lienard and Francois Anselmo
The Peace Generation: Reporting from the South Omo Pastoralist Gathering, Nyangatom Woreda, Kangaten, Ethiopia, November 2007. Paul Sulivan
Armed Conflicts in the Lower Omo Valley, 1970-1976: An Analysis from within Nyangatom Society. 1979. Serge Tornay
The Nyangatom: An Outline of their Ecology and Social Organization. 1981. Serge Tornay
More chances on the fringe of the state? The growing power of the Nyangatom: a border people of the Lower Omo Valley, Ethiopia (1970-1992). 1993. Serge A. Tornay
Structure et événement: le système générationnel des peuples du cercle karimojong. 1995. Serge Tornay

Generational Systems on the Threshold of the Third Millennium: An Anthropological Perspective. 1998. Serge. A. Tornay

Modernization in the Lower Omo Valley and Adjacent Marches of Eastern Equatoria, Sudan: 1991-2000. 2009. Serge Tornay
Environmental Change, Food Crises and Violence in Dassanech, Southern Ethiopia. 2012. Yntiso Gebre
Inter-Ateker Discord: The Case of the Nyangatom and the Turkana. 2012. Gebre Yntiso
The Nyangatom Circle of Trust: Criteria for Ethnic Inclusion and Exclusion. 2014. Gebre Yntiso
Ethnic Boundary Making in East Africa: Rigidity and Flexibility among the Nyangatom People. 2016. Yntiso Gebre

Distributed Power: Climate Change, Elderhood, and Republicanism in the Grasslands of East Africa, c. 500 Bce to 1800 Ce - ProQuest. 2020. William Fitzsimons

Formation of raiding parties for intergroup violence is mediated by social network structure. 2016. Luke Glowacki

How do agro-pastoralists cope with climate change? The case of the Nyangatom in the Lower Omo Valley of Ethiopia. 2021. Gebeyehu et al.

Identifying Hotspots of Overgrazing in Pastoral Areas: Livestock Mobility and Fodder Supply–Demand Balances in Nyangatom, Lower Omo Valley, Ethiopia. 2021. Gebeyehu et al.

Integrating Participatory Methods and Remote Sensing to Enhance Understanding of Ecosystem Service Dynamics Across Scales. 2019. Hodbod et al.

Leadership solves collective action problems in small-scale societies.. 2015. Luke Glowacki

Making Pastoralists Count: Geospatial Methods for the Health Surveillance of Nomadic Populations. 2019. Wild et al.

Omo Rangelands Report. 2016. Tefera et el.

Pastoral Conflict, Emerging Trends and Environmental Stress in Nyangatom, Southern Ethiopia. 2021. Temesgen Thomas & Taddesse Berisso

Spoils division rules shape aggression between natural groups. 2018. Doğan et al.

Subsistence styles shape human social learning strategies. 2017. Luke Glowacki

The Present State of Nyangatom Social Organization and Its Relevance to Local Governance. Firew Tesfaye and Eyob Derfersha

Warfare and reproductive success in a tribal population. 2015. Luke Glowacki & Richard Wrangham

Omo Valley

Baseline Survey on the Most Prevalent HTP and Sanitation Practices among the Community of the Hamer, Dassenech, and Nyangatom Woredas of the South Omo Zone in the SNNPRS. 2011. ATEM Consultancy Service

Climate Change and Pastoralism: Traditional Coping Mechanisms and Conflict in the Horn of Africa. 2012. Mulugeta Gebrehiwot Berhe and Jean-Bosco Butera

Emerging Issues in Inter-Ethnic Reconciliation (Peace-building) in the Lower Omo Basin, Ethiopia. 2019. Tadele & Lambebo

Homeland, Boundary, Resource: the collision of place-making projects on the Lower Omo River, Ethiopia. 2013. Felix Girke

Lake Turkana & the Lower Omo: Hydrological Impacts of Major Dam & Irrigation Developments. 2012. Sean Avery

Lands of the Future: transforming pastoral lands and livelihoods in eastern Africa. 2014. Abbink et al.

The River: peoples and histories of the Omo-Turkana Area. 2018. Clack & Brittian

Traditional coping mechanisms for climate change of pastoralists in South Omo, Ethiopia. 2012. Fana Gebresenbet


Ethnic Conflict in the 'Tribal Zone': the Dizi and Suri in Southern Ethiopia. 1993. Jon Abbink

Famine, Gold and Guns: The Suri of Southwestern Ethiopia, 1985-91. 1993. Jon Abbink
Reading the Entrails: Analysis of an African Divination Discourse. 1993. J. Abbink

Authority and Leadership in Surma Society (Ethiopia). 1997. Jon Abbink

Ritual and Political Forms of Violent Practice among the Suri of Southern Ethiopia. 1998. Jon Abbink

Violence and political discourse among thé Chai Suri. 1998. Jon Abbink
Violence, Ritual, and Reproduction: Culture and Context in Surma Dueling. 1999. Jon Abbink

Violence and the Crisis of Conciliation: Suri, Dizi and the State in South-West Ethiopia. 2000. Jon Abbink

Drinking, Prestige, and Power: Alcohol and Cultural Hegemony in Maji, Southern Ethiopia. 2002. Jon Abbink

Plant use among the Suri people of southern Ethiopia: a system of knowledge in danger? 2002. Jon Abbink

The Fate of the Suri: Conflict and Group Tension on the South-West Ethiopian Frontier. 2009. Jon Abbink


Generation-Sets: Stability and Change, with Special Reference to Toposa and Turkana Societies. 1991. Müller-Dempf

 Toposa culture & communication of the Gospel. 1984. David Kitonga

Noragric Working Papers. 1996. Arne Ola

Polygyny as social and biological differentiation among Toposa agro-pastoralists of Southern Sudan. 1990. Eric Abella Roth & K. Balan Kurup

The Toposa Question, 1912-1927. 2022. Robert O. Collins


Turkana And Their Wildlife. 1996. Anthony J. Barrett
Notes on the Turkana Tribe of British East Africa. Part I. 1921. Juxon Barton

Notes on the Turkana Tribe of British East Africa. Part II. 1921. Juxon Barton

Blowback Kenya’s Illicit Ammunition Problem in Turkana North District. 2008. James Bevan

Ethnic conflicts in North-West Kenya: Pokot-Turkana Raiding 1969-1984. 1990. Michael Bollig

The Universality of African Marriage Reconsidered: Evidence from Turkana Males. 1996.  Rada Dyson-Hudson & Dominique Meekers

Children of the Dancing Ground, Children of the House: Costs and Benefits of Marriage Rules. 1998. Rada Dyson-Hudson, Dominique Meekers & Neville Dyson-Hudson

A Preliminary Survery of the Turkana. 1951. P.H. Gulliver
The Karamajong Cluster. 1952. P.H. Gulliver

The Turkana Age Organization. 1958. P.H. Gulliver

The People of the Grey Bull: The Origin and Expansion of the Turkana. 1988. John Lamphear

The Evolution of Ateker 'New Model' Armies: Jie & Turkana. 1994. John Lamphear
Marriage and bridewealth negotiations among the Turkana in northwestern Kenya. 2007. Itaru Ohta

Ateker generation-set systems revisited: Field facts adn findings, and a systematisation. Working Paper No. 183. 2017. Harald Müller-Dempf

Bridewealth negotiations among the Turkana in northwestern Kenya. 2007. Itaru Ohta

Children of the Dancing Ground, Children of the House: Costs and Benefits of Marriage Rules (South Turkana, Kenya). 1998. Dyson-Hudson et al.

Nomad aesthetic: Cattle modifications among the northern Turkana of north west Kenya. 2018. Maurizio Dioli


Baseline Survey on the Most Prevalent HTP and Sanitation Practices among the Community of the Hamer, Dassenech, and Nyangatom Woredas of the South Omo Zone in the SNNPRS, 2011. ATEM Consultancy Service

Violence Extended into the Middle Omo Valley: A View of Recent Raiding Conflicts in Malo, Southwest Ethiopia, 2009. Takeshi Fujimoto

Traditional coping mechanisms for climate change of pastoralists in South Omo, Ethiopia. 2012. Fama Gebresenbet & Asnake Kefale
The Karamajong Cluster. 1952. P.H. Gulliver

Ethiopia: The Last Two Frontiers. 2011. John Markakis
The Peace Generation: Reporting from the South Omo Pastoralist Gathering, Nyangatom Woreda, Kangaten, Ethiopia, November 2007. Paul Sulivan

Exploration in the Lower Omo Valley of Southwestern Ethiopia between 1890 and 1910. 1981. David Turton


The Hamar are Omotic agropastoralists living in the Hamer District of the South Omo Zone, in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People’s Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia. They number approximately 50,000 bordering the Dassanetch to the south and the Nyangatom to the west across the Omo River. While most Hamar reside in relatively fixed villages, men often spend a significant portion of their year at remote cattle camps in Kisso and in Mago National Park. While the pastoral lifestyle is predominant among the Hamar, there has been an increasing shift to farming in recent years, with sorghum being the main crop produced.


Day hut for working in the fields


Married Hamar woman

Hamar girl carrying her brother

Omo Valley Resources and Articles
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